A Comprehensive Review of COVID-19 Vaccines, Adverse Reactions, and the Imperative of Early Diagnosis

Swetha J.

School of Pharmaceutical Science-VIATAS, Tamil Nadu, India.

Karthikeyan K.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of pharmaceutical science-VISTAS, Tamil Nadu, India.

Shanmugasundaram P.

School of Pharmaceutical Science-VIATAS, Tamil Nadu, India.

Balaji P. *

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science-VISTAS, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a rare autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder and is defined by the existence of circulating G immunoglobulins (IgG) against basement membrane antigens BP180 and BP230, the immunobullous skin disorder characteristically presents with intense bullae and intense generalized pruritis, where the immune system attacks a thin layer of tissue below the outer layer of skin. Most of the BP cases are due to autoantibodies against proteins arranged at the dermal-epidermal junction, BP is also caused by systemic medications. Either the presence of certain triggering factors in the covid vaccine or the dissimilarity between the vaccine structure and the basement membrane antigens, had activated the B-cell immunity and therefore the production of antibodies, which is the main cause behind the activation of BP. A classic case of this condition is presented here to highlight and to create awareness about the symptoms occurred after COVID-19 vaccination. A 41-year-old female patient presented with BP caused after the administration of 1st dose of covid vaccine.

Keywords: Allergy, bullous pemphigoid, covishield vaccine allergy, autoimmune subdermal blistering disorder, rashes

How to Cite

Swetha J., Karthikeyan K., Shanmugasundaram P., and Balaji P. 2024. “A Comprehensive Review of COVID-19 Vaccines, Adverse Reactions, and the Imperative of Early Diagnosis”. Asian Journal of Case Reports in Medicine and Health 7 (1):18-21. https://journalajcrmh.com/index.php/AJCRMH/article/view/181.


Download data is not yet available.


Global Preparedness Monitoring Board. World Health Organization; Geneva:2020. A World in Disorder. Global Preparedness Monitoring Board Annual Report; 2020.

Available:https://apps.who.int/gpmb/assets/annual report/GPMB AR 2020 EN.pdf License: CC BY-NC-SA 3. 0IGO. AVAILABLE from:(Google Scholar).

WHO. WHO coronavirus disease. WHO. 2021;1.

Available from:https://covid.who.int

Draft Landscape of COVID-19 Candidate Vaccines. 2021.


Vaccines-COVID19 Vaccine Tracker; 2022.


Subedi P, Yadav GK, Paudel B, Regmi A, Pyakurel P. Adverse events following the first dose of Covishield (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccination among health workers in selected districts of central and western Nepal: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2021, Dec 21;16(12):e0260638.

Death due to neurological complication-Available:https://www-thehealthsite.com/

news/Delhi, published on June 22,2021.

Vaccine side-effects and SARS- CoV-2 infection after vaccination in users of the COVID Symptom Study app in the UK; a prospective observational study. Menni C, Klaser K, May A, et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21:939- 949.

Chapin-Bardales J, Gee J, Myers T. Reactogenicity following receipt of mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines. JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association; 2021, Apr 5.

DOI:10. 1001/jama.2021.5374.

McNeil MM. Weintraub ES, Duffy J et al. Risk of anaphylaxis after vaccination in children and adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:868-878.

The News India Express publications-


10.Article on How India Failed those who were harmed by the Covid-19 vaccine; 2022. Available:https://scroll.in/article/1036361/how-india-failed-those-who-were-harmed-by-the-covid-29-vaccine-published on November 2nd, 2022.